25 December, 2016

Chemistry GK Study Note: Matter and Its Properties

Chemistry  GK Study Note:  Matter & Its Property

In this article we are going to focus few important aspects of matter and its property which is a very important topic of chemistry. Various questions asked in SSC Exam from This sections. This Chemistry GK study note will be beneficial to solve MCQ GK question that are asked in all the exam of SSC. Let us learn this topic in brief.

Everything we see around us is matter. Chemistry is a subject which broadly discus about various matter and their physical and Chemical composition and Properties. Lavoisier a Chemist from France is considered as the father of modern chemistry because of his scientific approach to characterise the Physical and Chemical properties of Matter in definite format.  Let us see various aspect of matter around us and find their basic properties.

Anything in Space and around us which possess a specific amount mass and can be seen by our eye or any instrument or feel the sensation by touching it or can smell by human nose or can taste by our Test organ is considered as matter. All the matters of universe occupied some space and can be felt by our one or more sense organs.

Matters in Chemistry is classified broadly through two main Classifications
  

  • Physical Classification
  • Chemical Classification





Physical Classification: 


Physical classification of matter is done with the help of their Physical appearances like some matter are physically solid stone, wood some are physically liquid like and some are physically gaseous like oxygen or carbon di oxide. Again some matters in very high temperature condition acts as in plasma state. Thus physically matters are classified in four groups as follows. 

  • Solid State: In this state of matter, matter has a specific shape, size, mass and volume. The solid matter is physically touchable and can be change its position by applying external force. Solid matters cannot be compressed by applying external pressure. But can be converted into other state of matter like liquid or gas by applying high external pressure or Temperature.  Solid matters are generally rigid and hard. Few examples of Solid state of matter are Metal(iron, gold, silver, copper), wood, Bricks


  •  Liquid State: Liquid state of matter is defined as the state where the molecule of the matter is loosely bound to each other. In this state matter do not have any specific size or shape. It takes the shape of the container where it is stored. The liquid matter have a specific volume and Mass. Further liquid matter can be converted into gas by applying External temperature. Few examples of Liquid Matters are Water, Oil, milk, alcohol etc.


  • Gaseous State: In this state the molecules of the matter is very loosely bound to each other or we can say that each molecule is separated from each other. Like each molecules of Oxygen gas of our environment moves freely in space and not connected with other molecule.  Gas do not have any specific size or shape or even volume. The volume of the gas is the volume internal volume of the container where the gas in enclosed. Gas can be compressed by applying external pressure into liquid form and can be converted into plasma state by applying very high temperature.


  • Plasma State: When very high temperature is applied to any has then all the molecule of the gas breaks down into elementary particles like atom and even in higher temperature these atoms also breaks down and thus electron, and nucleus are separated from each other. This type of state of matter is called Plasma state. Plasma state is found in sun where molecule of atom of hydrogen and Helium are breaks down and thus electrons and nucleus are moving separately. 



Chemical Classification:

 Depending Upon the chemical properties of Substances, substances are classified into two main Categories namely Pure substances and mixture of substances. Again pure substances are classified into two main categories namely Elements and Compound. Elements are mainly of three types those are Metals, non-metals and metalloids, again compound substances are classified into two distinct categories namely Ogranic compound and Inorganic Compound. Mixtures are divided into two divisions namely Homogeneous Mixture and Heterogeneous mixture. Thus Chemical Classification can be shown with the help of a Classification tree as follow:




Pure Substances: Pure substances are the substances which contains only a single type of substance which cannot be separated into two or more different kinds. All the molecule of pure substances has similar physical and chemical properties. Like Oxygen gas, Iron sheet, Alkohol, Salt, etc. Pure substances are of two kinds those are

Elements:  This is the simplest form of pure substances where all the molecules are of same kind i.e. fundaments atoms of elements are same. The elements are the basic building block of everything in this universe. Molecules can neither be broken in two or more different substances nor can be built with simple physical process. Elements are classified into three basic kinds namely Metal, Non- Metal and Metalloid.

  •  Metal: Metal are solid in nature and very hard. Only the metal which is exception is Mercury. Mercury is liquid in nature in room temperature (25 Degree Celsius). Metals are very good conductor of electricity and heat, they are very elastic, lustre. Metals are use as conductor. Metals are composed with highly danced atomic lattice and thus bond of atoms of metal so strong that it cannot be broken easily. Metals have few numbers of electrons in their outer cell of atomic orbit so that they can be easily ionized. Some of the example of metals is Aluminium, Gold, Silver, Iron, Zinc, and Nickel, bronze, platinum.


  •  Non Metal: Non Metal are opposite in nature with Metal.  They are usually soft and gaseous.  Only the non-metal which is very hard is carbon, Diamond is a carbon which is the hardest nonmetal. Non-metals are very bad conductor of electricity and heat, except graphite made of carbon is a good conductor of electricity.  They are not ductile or malleable. Non Metals are found in all the states of matter i.e. solid, liquid or gas. Non-Metals are composed with loosely bond atomic structure which is easily breakable. Non-metals have very high numbers of electrons in their outer cell of atomic orbit so that they cannot be easily ionized. Some of the example of metals is Oxygen, Carbon, Nitrogen, Sulpher, Helium, Argon, Iodine etc .



  •  Metalloid: Metalloid is in middle of metal and non-metal. They possess common properties of both metal and non-metal. They are good conductor in high temperature but nonconductor in low temperature. Some examples of Metalloids are Silicon, Arsenic, Antimony, Bismuth etc.
 "Hope this article on Matter and its property  a topic from Chemistry GK Study note is helpful for SSC Exam Aspirants. Many questions are asked in GK section of SSC Exams form Chemistry. In this post we have tried out to give brief Knowledge about Matter and Its property. It you have any doubt regarding various questions from this topic you can comment us on following comment section. Thanks for your visit. We will try to provide more General knowledge from all the topics of Chemistry in our upcoming posts"

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