22 April, 2016

Reasoning Preparation Guide : Coding and Decoding

Reasoning Tips and Tricks: Coding & Decoding

Dear Job Aspirants,

 In this section on Reasoning tips and tricks we will be discussing about the Coding and Decoding of any given Puzzle into our desired solution. Coding and Decoding of any given puzzle means transmitting the information from one place to another without the knowledge of third person. In our day to day life we use various type of Coding and Decoding mechanism to transmit our message to next person. For example we use many types of Hand Gestures, Head Postures or eye brow movement and any other means to transmit our message to other.  This coding and Decoding of message may be various kinds in form of Letter Coding or Number Coding or Pictorial coding, Symbolic Coding, Substitution Coding, or Deciphering Coding. Let’s Discuss the Depth of this Coding and Decoding.

What is Coding in Term of Reasoning: Coding is the process by which any information or message is Coded to different form so the while transmitting from one place to another if any third person  got the message he will not be able to understand what the message is actually containing. Thus coding is simply a process by which we can transmit any information to our desired person without any intermediate intervention.

What is Decoding in Term of Reasoning: Decoding is the reverse process of Coding. In decoding we recover the actual message from coded message. Coded message may contain unwanted things, in decoding these Unwanted things are removed and actual information is recovered.  For example you need a password to your friends Laptop. You asked to your friend for password.  He has given the password in coded form. Until and unless you don’t know the message decoding you will not be able to get the actual password. So here you need decoding. Suppose his Laptops password is 12345 and your friend told you the password is ABCDE and told you to get the Number Position for the given password then only you will be able to decode the password.  Thus Coding and Decoding is very much important for our day to day life. Similarly coding and decoding is very important for Competitive Exams too.     

    Codding and decoding may be off various types, based on various word patterns, Number pattern, Depends of various fundamental principles. In competitive examination Coding decoding questions has 3 coded questions and you are asked to find the ford similar coded question or for every coded question there will be given a second coded answer and you are asked to find the answer for the fourth coded question based on others pattern or rule of coding.

 In Coded Decoding questions, the words or letters or alphabets do not stand for its own meaning it generally stand for another meaning.  Questions from Coding and Decoding are grouped in various categories.

1.       Letter to letter Coding     2. Letter to Number Coding     3. Substitution Coding    4.Deciphering Coding           5.Symbol Coding

Let’s Discuss the Each Section In Details.

1. Letter to Letter Coding: in general in letter Coding the message contains with letter is coded with different type of letters so our main aim is to find out the link how the letters are coded to different letters. There are various techniques/rules/patterns by which letter may be coded to other letter. One of the popular technique of letter coding is each letter is substituted with other letter by forward movement or by backward movement or one forward movement and next one backward movement or increasing/decreasing forward  movement or decreasing/increasing backward movements. Examine the following coding example.

Q1. HELLO = IFMMP ;      ALSO=BMTP ;      KIND= LJOE   then WELL=?

To solve this kind of question we have to find the pattern of coding of first three given coding.  Here each alphabet of words is forwarded by one position to create Code. i.e.

   +1               +1              +1             +1               +1          
 H ---->I,     E ---->F,      L ---->M,   L ---->M,      P ---->O
Similar coding pattern is applied to other three also .  WELL=XFKK will be the answer.

Q2. If HELLO = IGOPT, ;      ALSO=BNVS ;      KIND= LKQH   then WELL=?

 Here each alphabet of former three word is forwarded by 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 positions i.e.

    +1            +2                +3                  +4               +5          
  H ---->I,     E ---->G,    L ---->O,        L---->P,      P ---->T

 H is forwarded by One position to get I (H+1=I), E is forwarded by 2 Position to get G (E+2=G), L is forwarded by 3 position to get O (L+3=O), Next L is forwarded by 4 Position to get P (L+4=P) and Last one O is forwarded by 5 position to get T (O+5=T) thus coded word become HELLO= IGOPT. Similar pattern is followed in other in ALSO, KIND, and Thus WELL = XGOP will be the answer.

Thus to solve Letter Coding problems first we have to find out the coding mechanism and then have to apply this mechanism to given word to find code.

Tips & Tricks 1: To solve Letter to Letter Coding reasoning question always keep in mind the position value of each alphabet and try to find out how the adjacent alphabets are connected to each other.

2. Letter to Number Coding: In this Coding mechanism letters are assigned a specific Numeric Number. To solve this kind of question we have to find out the pattern on Number assignment to a given Word or Alphabet or a Letter and have to find out the Numeric Number for questioned word/Letter. Various Mathematical operations like Addition, Multiplication, Subtraction or division are used to code any letter to Form Number. Alphabets positional Number any letter is also used to create the Number code for that letter. E.g.  ‘A ‘alphabet has a position value 1, ‘B’ alphabet has a position Value of 2 similarly ‘Z’ has a position value of 26.

Let’s discuss with an example.

Q1. If VOID is coded with 25 18 12 7then what will be the code for BOIL.

Here we have to find out how VOID is coded to 25 18 12 7. To solve this first we have to think how alphabet V is related with 25, O is related with 18, how I is related with 12 and D is related with 7. Let’s think more deeply 25 is near the position value of i.e. V has position value 22 so  25= 22+3 similarly O has a position value of 15 and number coded for O is 18 = 15 +3, and similar for other. So we have found the coding mechanism i.e. each alphabet of Letter is coded with its position value +3.

V--------- (22+3)--->25

O--------- (15+3)---->18

I---------- (9+3)------>12

D -------- (4+3)-------> 7

Thus code for BOIL with be 5 18 12 15

3. Substitution Coding: In this Substitution Coding mechanism some latters are substituted by other letter or some words are substituted by other word or Some Numerical operators are substituted by other Numeric operator. The candidate has to find out the substitution word for a given problem word relating with the other substitution words. Let’s discuss with a example.

Q1. If Red is called Blue, Blue is called yellow, yellow is called Black, Black is called White, White is calling Cyan, Cyan is called Magenta, and then what is the color of   Milk?

Solution: We know that Color of Milk is White. Now our job is to find out the substitution for White. According to the question White is substituted with Cyan. So the color of Milk is Cyan.

Q2. If ‘Do It Well’ is coded with ‘Yan Too Cam’, ‘Let’s Do It’ is coded with ‘Swam Yan Cam’, ‘Let’s Check It’ is coded with ‘Swam Yan Milee’ what will be the code fir ‘Let’s do it well’?

Solution: In above question from first and second substitution it can be easily observed that ‘Do’ and ‘It ’ is  Coded with Yan and Cam. From Second and third substitution it can be observed that ‘ Let’s’ and ‘It’ is coded with Swam and Swam and Yan. Thus Do= Cam,  It= Yan, Let’s = Swam, and Well = Too. So Code for Let’s Do It Well =Swam Cam Yan Too

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